# Determination of relative atomic masses of isotopes by Dempster’s mass spectrometer

Different steps involved in the determination of exact atomic masses and the relative abundances of different isotopes of an element are given below: 1. Vapourization: The substance, whose analysis for the separation of isotopes is required, is converted into its vapours. The pressure of these vapours is kept low in the range of 10-6 to […]

# How to derive quadratic formula ?

Quadratic Equation: [latex s=3]x = \frac{{ – b \pm \sqrt {b^2 – 4ac} }}{{2a}}[/latex] Now we will see how to make that formula. Basically quadratic equation is a second order polynomial with 3 coefficients. The quadratic equation is given by: [latex s=2]ax^2+bx+c=0[/latex] Divide the equation with ‘a’ [latex s=3]\frac{ax^2}{a}+\frac{bx}{a}+\frac{c}{a}=0[/latex] [latex s=3]x^2+\frac{bx}{a}+\frac{c}{a}=0[/latex] [latex s=3]x^2+\frac{bx}{a}=-\frac{c}{a}[/latex] Now add     […]