Ch # 7 Fundamental Principles of organic chemistry Short Question


More than 200 years ago, early chemists recognized organic compounds distinct from inorganic compounds because of the differences in their origin and properties. Organic compounds were considered as those obtained from living things, plants or animals, and inorganic compounds were those obtained from non- living or mineral sources……………


  1. Introduction.
  2. Some Features of Organic Compound.
  3. Importance of Organic Chemistry.
  4. Sources of Organic Compounds.
  5. Cracking of Petroleum.
  6. Reforming.
  7. Classifications of Organic Compounds.
  8. Functional Group.
  9. Hybridization of Orbitals and the Shapes of Molecules.
  10. Isomerism.

In this chapter you will learn:

  1. The special features of carbon chemistry with reference to its ability to form chains, rings and isomers.
  2. The importance of organic chemistry in daily life.
  3. About the sources of carbon and its compounds like coal, petroleum natural gas with reference to their availability in Pakistan.
  4. Refining, reforming and cracking of petroleum and to enlist products in a tabular’ form.
  5. How can petroleum serve as a source of different type of fuels.
  6. About the classification of organic compounds based on the carbon skeleton.
  7. About functional groups and the dependence of chemical properties on functional groups.
  8. About the structural isomerism in organic compounds.
  9. That cis-trans isomerism arises due to restricted rotation around a carbon-carbon double bond.
  10. How the hybridization theory can help us understand the type of bonding and the shapes of organic compounds.

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